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                • What are primary and secondary batteries?
                  Answer: Primary batteries are ordinary dry batteries and can only be used once. Secondary batteries are also called rechargeable batteries. Power batteries (or traction batteries) in secondary batteries are currently the main power source for electric vehicles.
                • How does a rechargeable battery achieve its energy conversion?
                  A: Each battery has the capability of electrochemical conversion, that is, the stored chemical energy is directly converted into electrical energy. As far as a secondary battery (also called a battery) (another term is also called a rechargeable portable battery), In the process, chemical energy is converted into electrical energy; in the charging process, electrical energy is converted into chemical energy again. This process can be charged and discharged more than 500 times, depending on the electrochemical system.
                • What is the capacity of the battery?
                  Answer: The capacity of the battery refers to the amount of electricity that the active material in the battery can participate in the electrochemical reaction is called the capacity of the battery, that is, the amount of charge that the battery can hold after charging. The unit is "Ah" (Ah) and 1 A (A). The current is discharged for 1 hour, and the capacity is 1 ampere hour (Ah). Assuming that the average current is 4A, the discharge time is 3 hours when the battery is discharged at the termination voltage of the battery, and the battery capacity is 12Ah (the discharge is not calculated here) effectiveness).
                • What is the rated capacity of the battery?
                  Answer: The rated capacity of a battery refers to the requirements for designing or manufacturing a battery when it is specified or guaranteed that the battery should discharge a minimum amount of power under certain discharge conditions. The battery capacity indicated by the manufacturer refers to the amount of power that the battery should provide when the battery is discharged to the termination voltage at a rate of 10h at an ambient temperature of 25 C. The unit is Ah (ampere * hour).
                • What is the design capacity of a battery?
                  Answer: According to the amount of active material contained in the battery, the capacity of the battery calculated from electrochemical theory is called the design capacity.
                • What is the actual capacity of the battery?
                  Answer: The actual capacity of the battery refers to the actual amount of electricity discharged by the battery under a certain discharge condition, which is mainly affected by the discharge rate and temperature (so strictly speaking, the battery capacity should indicate the charge and discharge conditions).
                • What is the battery's charge acceptance?
                  Answer: Under the specified charging voltage and current conditions, the amount of charge the battery accepts per unit time.
                • What is the self-discharge rate of a battery?
                  Answer: After the battery is charged, the phenomenon that the capacity decreases by itself during storage is called self-discharge, also known as the charge retention ability, which refers to the ability of the battery to maintain the amount of electricity stored under certain conditions when the battery is open. Measuring the percentage of battery self-discharge to the total capacity over a certain period of time is called "self-discharge rate".
                • What is battery internal resistance?
                  Answer: It refers to the resistance to the current flowing through the battery when the battery is working. There are two parts: ohmic internal resistance and polarization internal resistance. Large internal resistance of the battery will cause the battery's discharge working voltage to decrease and shorten the discharge time. The internal resistance is mainly affected by the battery material, manufacturing process, battery structure and other factors. Is an important parameter to measure battery performance.
                • What are the disadvantages to the battery?
                  Answer: There are many unfavorable factors to the battery, which mainly occur during the charge and discharge stage.1. The "second super" discharge phase is mainly the discharge current overvalue, that is, the discharge exceeds the allowable current value for a long time; the second problem of discharge is overdischarge, that is, exceeding the allowed discharge amount of the battery, called "second super", which is very harmful to the battery life .2. The charging stages of "two passes" and "two owes" are "two passes" and "two owes".(1) "Two passes": One pass is overcharging; one pass is lead-acid batteries that have been stored for an extended period of time without being used, and are replenished from time to time.(2) "Two shortfalls": One shortfall is due to undercharging of lead-acid batteries. The batteries are often not fully charged, and the plates cannot be restored in time after vulcanization, which is extremely taboo for lead-acid batteries; The underbalance between them causes the difference between the discharge level and the charge level of each single battery in a group of batteries to widen, the more the undercharge becomes the more undercharge and the overdischarge becomes the more overdischarge. Affect the life of the entire battery pack, but also increase their own economic expenses."Two passes" and "two owes" are the enemies of the battery, not to be underestimated. However, the "two passes" and "two owes" are caused by people themselves, and the problems are more complicated. There are many reasons, from selection, maintenance, reasonableness of the matching of controllers and chargers, and timely causes of battery failure Detection, etc., they are interconnected.
                • What is the harm of the battery heating?
                  A: The battery is allowed to have a small amount of heat, whether in use or during charging, but abnormal heat is not allowed. The abnormal fever is obvious, and you can feel it by touching the battery case with your hand. Heat is very harmful to the battery. The heat first causes the electrolyte water to evaporate and gradually dry up, and then decreases the charging efficiency, deformation of the plates, increased internal resistance, accelerated oxidation of mechanical parts, burned out plates or separators, and finally manifests in reduced battery capacity and shortened life.
                • What are the causes of battery discharge heat?
                  Answer: The reasons for the battery discharge heat are:(1) Cause of discharge heating: the discharge is too fast, it may be that the battery capacity is small, and the discharge current exceeds 0.5C for a long time. It is emphasized here that although the battery consumes a certain amount of power after a short journey, after the battery is stationary, the battery has a recovery process, and the electrochemical process of the plate continues, so the voltage will rise, but it does not mean that the capacity will rise. In contrast, during long-distance driving without stopping on the road, the electrification of the plates and the consumption of electrical energy occur simultaneously. There are three situations:① When the rated voltage of the motor is low, the battery capacity is small, the operating current is too large, the voltage will drop sharply, and the capacity will be exhausted quickly, which is most detrimental to the battery.② The electrochemical reaction speed of the battery can only maintain driving, and the battery has no chance of recovery and respite. It is often charged and discharged for the whole cycle, and it will be over-consumed if you pay little attention. When facing upwind and uphill, the power consumption is very large, forcing the battery plate to respond sharply. The high heat of the battery case will damage the battery and shorten the life, indicating that the capacity is not surplus.③ It is ideal that the electrochemical reaction speed of the battery can calmly supply enough electric energy. The battery case has no abnormal heat, indicating that the battery capacity is surplus.It should be noted that the battery case is obviously hot, and the internal battery itself is even hotter.
                • What are the reasons for the battery charging heat?
                  Answer: The reasons for the battery charging heat are:During the charging process of the battery, part of the electrical energy is converted into chemical energy, and part of the electrical energy is also converted into thermal energy and other energy. It is normal for the rechargeable battery to heat up, but when the temperature is high, you should check whether the charging current is too large or a short circuit occurs inside the battery.The relationship between the amount of heat generated and the amount of electrolyte is small. If the sealed battery has a small amount of electrolyte, the internal resistance increases, which will also cause the battery to heat up and the terminal voltage to be high during charging. Battery aging, dry electrolyte, and internal short circuits can also cause heat. The charger can not be constant voltage in the late stage of charging, so that the battery voltage exceeds the allowable value, the temperature will rise, it will swell seriously, and the end of life.During use, try not to place it horizontally or upside down, to prevent a large amount of gas produced inside the battery from being discharged from the air release valve, especially when charging, otherwise it may cause the casing to burst.
                • How to maintain the consistency of the battery pack?
                  Answer: Although the lead-acid battery has been strictly selected when it leaves the factory, after a certain period of use, the non-uniformity will appear and gradually increase. The charger does not have option and recognition, and can not supplement the undercharge Restricting the amount of overcharge and how to balance the battery capacity must be performed by humans. The user measures the open circuit voltage of each battery periodically and irregularly during the middle and late periods of battery pack use. For lower voltages, recharge separately to make the voltage and capacity consistent with other batteries, and try to reduce their gap.
                • Can pure drinking water be used for battery use?
                  Answer: It cannot be used, because the pure water that people drink everyday has a higher impurity content than the battery water requirements, but some elements in the water are beneficial to the human body and less bacterial sediment. Battery water should meet JB / T10053-1999 standard requirements.
                • Can I connect batteries with different capacities, performances, or manufacturers?
                  Answer: No.

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